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Chapter-wise Class 12 Biology NCERT solutions for students

29 Dec, 2022, By Tanvi Sharma

Class 12 Biology NCERTs solutions

If you are a class 12th board student who is also preparing for the NEET exam then you must be aware that biology is the subject that has the highest weightage. To bring out the best in both these exams it is cardinal to be well familiar with Class 12 biology NCERT solutions. To be a winner in both these exams you must have a list of all the chapters included in the syllabus so that you don’t leave any.

Importance of acquainting Class 12 biology NCERT solutions

You might feel that NCERTs are of the least importance but the case is contrary to this. NCERTs provide just the right amount of information needed to excel in the basics. When talking of the board's exams NCERTs are just enough while in the case of the NEET exam these books play a crucial role in building a stronghold of the basics that is a major prerequisite to be able to cover the advanced concepts with ease.

Chapter-wise Class 12 Biology NCERT solutions

Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms

This chapter of  Class 12 Biology NCERT solutions involves types, modes, and the process of reproduction in different organisms. The sub topics covered in this chapter are asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction, pre-fertilization events, fertilization, and post-fertilization events. The textbook uses diagrams to help the students comprehend thoroughly.

Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

This chapter will help you learn about  Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants and explains the morphology, structure, and process of sexual reproduction in angiosperms. Subtopics included in this chapter are pre-fertilization: Structure and Events, Double fertilization, Post fertilization: Structure and Events, and Apomixis, and Polyembryony.

Chapter 3: Human Reproduction

This chapter as the name suggests emphasizes on male and female reproduction. The provided diagrams, illustrations, flow charts, and laymen language will make the grasping easy for the students.

sub-topics covered in this chapter are mentioned below: 

  • Reproductive structures,

  • Male reproductive systems,

  • Female reproductive systems,

  • The role of sex hormones,

  • Gametogenesis,

  • Spermatogenesis and other introductory topics of human reproduction.

Chapter 4: Reproductive Health

This chapter deals with topics related to the ones discussed in the previous chapter, i.e, reproductive health. This chapter deals with the health of the mother and child during the pre-pregnancy period. The other topics covered in this chapter are Infant mortality, maternal mortality and amniocentesis. The subtopics included in this chapter are Reproductive Health – Problems and Strategies, Population Explosion and Birth Control, Medical Termination of Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Infertility.

Chapter 5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

This chapter covers  Genetics and Evolution. The similarities between parents and offspring have been discussed in this chapter. The other subtopics included in this chapter are Mendel’s law of inheritance, the inheritance of one gene, the inheritance of two genes, sex determination, mutations, and genetic disorders. With the help of Diagrams, illustrations, flowcharts, and easy language grasping will be easy for the students.

 Chapter 6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Here in this molecular basis of inheritance chapter of Class 12 Biology NCERT solutions, you will understand the structures of DNA, RNA, the process of replication, etc.

This chapter covers the given sub-topics:

  • The DNA: Structure of polynucleotide chain, Packaging of DNA helix.

  • The search for genetic material: The genetic material is DNA, Properties of genetic material.

  • RNA world.

  • Replication: The experimental proof, the machinery, and enzymes.

  • Transcription: The transcription unit, Transcription unit and the gene, Types of RNA, and the process of transcription.

  • Genetic code: Mutations and genetic code, t RNA. Translation. Regulation of gene expression.

  • The Lac Operon.

  • Human genome project: Salient

 Chapter 7: Evolution

This chapter focuses on the history of life forms on earth. Other topics included are the origin of life and the evolution of life forms or biodiversity on planet earth. This chapter uses Diagrams, illustrations, flowcharts, and easy language to make it easy for the students to learn.

Chapter 8: Health and Diseases

This chapter deals with diseases like Health, maintenance of optimum health, diseases, types, treatment and prevention, and immunity and its types, and how it deals with other diseases such as  AIDS, cancer, and adolescent issues. The sub topics covered in this chapter are Common Diseases in Humans, Immunity, AIDS, Cancer, Drugs, and Alcohol Abuse.

Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

This chapter covers the biological principles applied to animal husbandry and plant breeding that plays a crucial part in the production of food. Techniques like embryo transfer and tissue culture are discussed here that are necessary for the promotion of food production.

Chapter 10: Microbes in Human Welfare

Microbes are also known as micro-organisms or microscopic organisms as these can only be seen under the microscope with the naked eye. Microbes are present all around us in the air, water, soil, and so on. Microbes played a key role in the evolution of Earth. Microbes can be both infectious and harlmless. The infectious ones can even result in death. Some of the harmful diseases caused by microbes are Influenza, tuberculosis, polio, cholera, and HIV. Some of the common microbes are Bacteria, protozoa viroid, some algae, Fungi, and Viruses.

Biology NCERT master course

Chapter 11: Biotechnology Principles and Processes

Biotechnology is defined as ” the integration of natural science and organisms, cells, parts thereof, and molecular analogs for products and services” by the European federation. This chapter focuses on the extensive study of principles and processes Inculpated in biotechnology. The two focus areas of this chapter are Genetic engineering, Manufacturing of Antibiotics, Drugs, and other Vaccines.

Chapter 12: Biotechnology and its Application

This chapter of Class 12 Biology NCERT solutions explains how humans have put biotechnology into use to better the quality of life and make improvisations in the area of food production and health. With the use of microbes, plants, animals, and their metabolic machinery biotechnology has provided humans with numerous benefits.

Chapter 13: Organisms and Populations

This chapter deals with ecology at the organismic and population levels. It involves topics like organisms and their environment, niche, major abiotic factors affecting the organisms and their environments such as temperature, water, light, soil, and responses to abiotic factors like regulation , migration, conformation, and suspension.

Chapter 14: Ecosystem

This chapter deals with the structure of the ecosystem, the transfer of energy and output, at first. It will also focus on topics like cycles, chains, and webs. Besides it will also lay emphasis on Structure and Function, Productivity, Decomposition, Energy Flow, Ecological Pyramids, Ecological Succession, Nutrient Cycling, and Ecosystem Services.

Chapter 15: Biodiversity and its Conservation

This chapter covers topics such as the importance and significance of biodiversity, its types, patterns, evolution, degradation, and conservation. Some other topics covered in this chapter are Genetic diversity, species diversity, latitudinal gradients, species-area relationship, causes of biodiversity losses, in-situ conservation, and ex-situ conservation.

Chapter 16: Environmental Issues

This chapter deals with environmental issues like pollution, global warming, deforestation, etc., and the steps are undertaken to resolve these issues.

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