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Fundamentals Of Soil Science its types and basics you need to know
20 Dec, 2022

Fundamental of soil science

The earth we walk on, the fresh air we breathe, the food we eat, or other necessities that our life depends upon are directly or indirectly derived from the soil. Like air, water is needed to survive such is the case with soil as well. And hence it is important to acquaint yourselves with soil science .

What is soil science?

Soil science is a term used to describe the study of soil as a natural resource present on earth. The study of soil includes soil formation, soil classification, and mapping. It also inculcates the study of the physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils. Terms like Pedology and edaphology are used synonymously with soil science but these terms are contrary to each other.

Also read: CBSE scholarship scheme 2022-23

Soil scientists are in charge of raising concerns regarding the preservation of soil and how should it be put into use for its proper utilization. Soil scientists also deal with how the soil in the world should be preserved.

Fundamentals of Soil Science

Come let's understand the fundamentals of soil science

What is soil?

Now that you understand what soil science is, let's focus on the basic concern of the same, ie, soil. 70% of the surface of the earth is covered with water and the rest 30% is covered with soil. The element soil is composed of a mixture of minerals, organic matter, air, and water. Organic matter comprises the dead remains of plants and animals. Apart from the rigid description of soil, it is also formed as a result of loose sediments. 

Also check: CBSE passing marks criteria 2023

Soil has the following types: 

  1. Clay Soil

  2. Sandy soil

  3. Loamy Soil

  4. Silt Soil

The soil comprises 45% minerals, 50% empty spaces or voids, and 5% organic matter. Following the are functions that the soil performs:

  1. Soil act as a channel for plant growth

  2. It contributes to modifying the earth's atmosphere

  3. It is one of the crucial atmospheres of the biosphere

  4. Provides home to organisms

Also read: Muscle Contraction

The process of soil formation

Soil formation is an entire process that involves the following steps: 

Soil profiles: when you dig into the soil you will see that it is comprised of several layers or horizons. When you put the horizons together you will see the formations of a soil profile. Each layer in the soil profile has a different process of its formation.

Also read: CBSE latest news for class 10

Soil changes with time: With the passage of time the appearance of the soil varies from its parental material. The nature of the soil is ever-changing and in fact, the components that it is made of like minerals, water, air, organic matter, and organisms are also subject to constant change. During the entire cycle of soil formation, it either catches some compounds or loses some. Some components are subject to movement within the soil itself. While some elements of the soil are transformed into other soils. 

CLORPT: The properties of the soil of every two places differ, be it the soil of two different parts of the same backyard. It is because their place and process of formation differ. The five major factors responsible for the formation of soil are climate, organisms, relief, parent material, and time or CLORPT. 

Soil science is an unfathomable area and when talking about its formation it is not formed in a single process but multiple processes are involved for the same. Soil is formed due to weathering of the rocks. The weathering of the rocks can happen in any one of the three given weathering processes.

Also read: CBSE board exam preparation

1.Mechanical Weathering

This process is generally witnessed on the surface of the earth and is also known as Physical Weathering because it is influenced by physical forces like wind, water, and temperature.

2.Chemical Weathering

The weathering of rocks that is done due to chemical reactions is known as chemical weathering. The change in the composition of the soil is a result of this type of weathering. 

3. Biological Weathering

This type of weathering occurs due to biological processes like the weakening and disintegration of rocks by living organisms.

Also check: How to score good marks in boards

How long does the process of soil formation take? 

Soil is a natural resource and is renewable but the process of its formation is quite gradual and requires a lot of time. The formation of even an inch of topsoil requires hundreds or even thousands of years for its formation. The speed of soil formation at different spaces varies. The colder regions have the slowest speed, and the hot and wet regions have the fastest rate of soil development.

Also read: Brain Boosting Foods

The significance of soil

The significance of soil has been listed below: 

  • Soil promotes the healthy development of plants that provides food, clothing, furniture, and medicines.

  • It is a habitat of many life forms like bacteria, fungi, algae, etc. Microbes play an important part in maintaining the environmental balance by holding onto moisture and decaying dead organisms. 

  • The topsoil provides assistance to several life-form activities like reproduction, hatching, nesting, breeding, etc. of a few organisms.

  • The organic matter present in the soil adds to the fertility of the soil. The rate of the fertility of the soil is responsible for the growth of the plant.

  • Soil is used in the making of cups, utensils, tiles, etc. The contents present in the soil like gravel, clay, and sand are used in the construction of buildings, roads, homes, etc. 

  • Various mineral medicines like calcium , iron, petroleum jelly, etc are derived from the soil.

Keep following EtoosIndia CBSE Articles for the latest updates.

How to study one day before exam? The key points to be considered
17 Dec, 2022

how to study one day before the examAre you one of those students who rest all year and forget about their books? Then wake up and worry at the last moment to rush the entire syllabus. For such students, exams can be a huge nightmare because now you have only a few days till the exams and a huge subject list that needs to be covered. It may be because of some unforeseen circumstances, procrastination, etc. The case is even worse for those who wake up one morning and realize that it is their exam the next day. In such an instance the only question that pops up in their mind's how to study one day before exam.

Well, the realization to study came a little late to you and it is advised to be thorough with the syllabus since the beginning but still, to help you here we are with the tips that will assist you in making the fullest utilization of the day.

Read about: CBSE scholarship scheme 2022-23

Top tips on How to study one day before exam

1. Wake up early 

Most of us hate waking up early but running behind the syllabus and having just a single day on your platter leaves you with no other option than waking up early. You only got a day and your main aim should be making the most out of these 24 hours. So, the first solution to your question about how to study one day before exam is to set an alarm for a sensible time like around 9 AM, and begin your day. You can nap as much as you want after the exam is over.

Also check: CBSE passing marks criteria 2023

2. Leave your bed

Studying from your bed can be comforting but can be risky when you have just a single day to study. Laying in your bed will only make you feel all lazy and suck out your energy when you need it the most. Push yourself out of the bed and find a place to study where you can concentrate better. The productivity and the pace that you catch at a perfectly set desk are unmatched by the productivity that your bed will drive you.

Also read: Importance of mental health during the exam

3. Plan your day out

You might just have 24 hours but these 24 hours can do wonders if you plan your day out. A well-laid plan can make all the difference. Breaking up your day to cover the syllabus is the easiest approach you can follow. Give your time to the topics considering how much time would you require for the same. So, form a study plan and follow it throughout the day to pull all the productiveness from the day.

Also read: How to score good marks in boards

4. Do not panic

Studying at the last moment can cause anyone to panic. You can retain all the information you want only if you keep your mind calm. Do not let the thought of how to study one day before exam surround your brain with fear.  Panicking will only dull your focus. So, follow the study plan and go ahead with a positive attitude.

Also check about: CBSE reading challenge 2022

5. Use your notes

Before you begin studying make sure that you have everything that is required while studying at your desk. This is to be done in order to keep yourself from getting disturbed and devote all your focus where it is needed. Keep the resources like notes, pens, notebooks, coursebooks, etc with easy access. Use the notes provided by your teachers as these are concise and comprehensive and will help you grasp the topics easily and quickly. 

Also read: Career options after 10

6. Don’t let distractions interrupt

With just one day left for your exam, you cannot risk being ripped in distractions. We all know that picking up your phone once for a second can cost you hours scrolling on the same. Make focus your first target and keep your phone away. To keep a check on time keep a watch or clock nearby so that you don’t have to use the phone even for looking at the time. It is surely not the day when you would want distractions. Once you start studying with full focus you will forget about your phone thus making how to study one day before exam easy.

Also read: Amazing interesting scientific facts

7. Get exam ready

The day of the exam can be stressful and you might forget something while in a hurry. Therefore it is suggested to set your bag for the day. Keep all the exam essentials like spare pens, calculators, student cards, etc in place. After all the preparation and hard work, you can risk leaving your paper because of a silly mistake. Hence, it is recommended to set your bag a day prior.

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8. Get back to bed early

You need to take 7-8 hours of sleep to retain all that you have studied. Students generally prefer studying till late at night before the exam, not realizing this can actually be fatal for all the hard work they have implied. Sound sleep will help you remember better in the long run whereas a tired brain won’t.

And this is how to study one day before exam. But it is advised to not make it a habit to study at the end moment because the fruits that a yearly preparation will yield are incomparable to last-minute preparation. Resort to this method only at the time of emergency.

Keep following EtoosIndia CBSE Articles for the latest updates.

NCERT exemplar class 10 chapter-wise details you need to know
08 Dec, 2022

NCERT exemplar class 10

To help students develop a deep understanding of the subject The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) provides the NCERT exemplar class 10 Math books to the students to prepare them for the core of the subject. Designed by a team of experts, the exemplar books include questions that are advanced and higher level based on the syllabus of class 10th. This is done in order to provide familiarity to the students with a variety of questions.

You need to bend over backward to excel in the CBSE Maths syllabus. What can make this subject easy is sticking regularly to practice. Practicing the regular questions won’t do the trick, rather opting for the NCERT exemplar class 10 Math books is a smart option. 

The NCERT exemplar class 10 Math books include 13 important chapters, the details of which are mentioned below.

NCERT exemplar class 10: Chapter-wise details 

Chapter 1 – Real Numbers

This chapter helps the students deal with exemplar problems based on  Euclid’s Division Lemma theorem and method, the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, irrational numbers, rational numbers, and their decimal expansions.

Chapter 2 – Polynomials

The NCERT exemplar class 10 math book will cover topics like polynomials and their geometrical presentation from chapter 2. It will also assist you with finding the relationship between zeroes and coefficients of a polynomial, you will also develop a good understanding of the division algorithm for polynomials and other related concepts.

Chapter 3 – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables

This chapter deals with topics like pair of linear equations in two variables and their graphical representation. You will also build a good hand in algebraic methods to solve linear equations like substitution method, elimination method, cross–multiplication method, etc.

Chapter 4 – Quadratic Equations

This chapter involves exemplar problems related to a standard form of a quadratic equation. You will learn how to find solutions to quadratic equations through factorization. It focuses on competing with the square and finding the roots of the quadratic equations. 

Chapter 5 – Arithmetic Progression

This chapter is based on arithmetic Progression, wherein the list of numbers is shown in the series and each number is referred to as a term. With the help of exemplars, you will learn how to find the relation between n th term in the Arithmetic Progressions. The NCERT exemplar class 10 will also help you find out the Sum of the First n terms of an AP.

 Chapter 6 – Triangles

This chapter includes problems based on the concepts and theorems of the similarity of triangles. It also deals with the areas of a similar triangle and the connection that they carry. Along with this it also focuses on Pythagoras theorem. 

 Chapter 7 – Coordinate Geometry

This chapter of coordinate geometry will deal with solving the problem of finding the distance between two points in a plane with the help of the distance formula. It will familiarize you with how to find the coordinates with the help of the section formula, finding the area of the triangle formed in a plane by meeting three points using its coordinates.

 Chapter 8 – Introduction To Trigonometry and Its Equations

This chapter focuses on one of the most crucial topics of mathematics, i.e, trigonometry. You will be made familiar with the various trigonometry ratios based on some specific angles, and complementary angles. It also focuses on problems based on trigonometric identities and formulas.

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Chapter 9 – Circles

This chapter deals with the tangent of a circle, and the number of tangents that can be formed from a point on the circle. You will also learn how to solve problems based on these concepts. 

Chapter 10 – Constructions

This chapter covers topics like dividing a line segment into a given ratio, the construction of a similar triangle, and the construction of the tangents to a circle from a point outside it.

Chapter 11 – Areas Related to Circles

In this chapter, you will deal with problems related to the Perimeter and Area of a Circle, Areas of Sector and Segment of a Circle, and Areas of Combinations of Plane Figures.

Chapter 12 – Surface Areas and Volumes

This chapter deals with problems related to the Surface Area of a Combination of Solids, the Volume of a Combination of Solids, the Conversion of a Solid from One Shape to Another, Frustum of a cone.

Chapter 13 – Statistics and Probability

This chapter statistics and probability is based on the concepts of statistics along with its related topics like  Mean of Grouped Data, Mode of Grouped Data, Median of Grouped Data, and Graphical Representation of Cumulative Frequency Distribution with practice exercises. It also gives an understanding of the approach to probability.


Is NCERT exemplar class 10  sufficient for preparation?

Yes, it is sufficient to score a good number in class 10. 

Is NCERT exemplar tough?

The NCERT exemplars familiarize the students with the higher difficulty level of the question and help them deal with such problems. 

What is NCERT exemplar for?

The NCERT exemplar was introduced by the  National Council of Educational Research and Training to aid students in getting a good hand on problem-solving higher-level questions. 

Keep following EtoosIndia CBSE Articles for the latest updates.

All about CBSE scholarship scheme 2022-23 for single girl child
03 Dec, 2022

CBSE scholarship scheme

To promote higher education among the only girl child of the families, the CBSE provides a CBSE scholarship scheme. A program directed towards aiding meritorious girls of class 10th with education assistance to further their studies in classes 11th and 12th. 

This scholarship program will be conducted by the Central Board of Secondary Education, a board recognized throughout the nation. Female aspirants looking forward to clearing this scholarship must fill in and submit the scholarship application on or before 17th January 2022. Candidates scoring more than 60% in class 10th can have access to the benefits of the scholarship scheme.

Come let’s dig deeper into the crucial details of the Scholarship scheme like the key dates, eligibility, application process, selection process, rewards, and more. With the given article go through all the crucial information given below if you want to have the perks of the CBSE scholarship scheme.

Also check: CBSE passing marks criteria

The Key dates for scholarship scheme

The application forms for the CBSE scholarship scheme are released between the months of October and November. It is important to be familiar with the key dates of the scholarship because the application and renewal for the scholarship are not necessarily the same. 

Go through the table given below to know the important dates of the CBSE scholarship for the academic year 2022-23. 






The final date for the submission date of the online application (Fresh and Renewal)

30 November 2022


Verification of Applications by Schools

Up to 7 December 2022

Also check: CBSE Internal Assessment

Eligibility criteria of the CBSE scholarship

Before applying for this scholarship program girl students need to fulfill a set of conditions to be eligible for the CBSE Scholarship Scheme. The eligibility criteria involve the current qualification, academic performance, and more, of the female students. Here is a list of the conditions that the aspirants must fulfill before applying for the scholarship program. 

Note: The key eligibility of the scholarship scheme is that you should be the only girl child of a family.

  • Only Indian citizens are eligible to apply for this scholarship program.

  • Girl students who scored 60% or more in the current academic year in the 10th examination by CBSE are eligible for the scholarship scheme. 

  • The students must be studying in classes 11th and 12th from CBSE-affiliated schools whose tuition fee should be either INR 1,500 or less per month.

Note: NRI students studying from CBSE-affiliated schools are also eligible for the CBSE scholarship scheme. However, the tuition fees of such students should be less than INR 6,000 per month.

Also read: CBSE class 12 exam pattern

How to apply for the CBSE scholarship? 

How you apply for this scholarship program is easily explained with the help of the given points. 

Follow the given steps to apply for the scholarship scheme:

  1. Visit the official page of and click on the online application page. 

  2. To begin applying click on the fresh application button. 

  3. Fill in your class 10th CBSE board examination roll number and date of birth.

  4. The application form page will appear where you will be asked to fill in the required details. 

  5. Now submit the application form and note down your registration number for future reference. 

  6. Print the undertaking in the prescribed format. 

  7. Fill in the form, paste a current photograph and get the attestation from your school. 

  8. Prepare an affidavit in regard to the given guidelines. 

  9. In the ‘upload document’ section upload the scanned copy of the undertaking and the affidavit in a PDF format with a size of not more than 1 MB.

  10.  On the submission of the application form, the students can go to the ‘print confirmation’ section to generate the confirmation page.

Also check: All about ICSE vs CBSE board

How does the renewal process work? 

The renewal students can follow the steps given below for offline renewal:

  1. Visit the official notification of the scholarship. 

  2. Following the given guidelines download the scholarship renewal form. 

  3. Fill in the details required in the form. 

  4. Upload the required details like a class 11 mark sheet, copy of your Aadhaar card, and Bank passbook/canceled cheque (duly attested copy).

  5. Further the application form on the given address-“Application for CBSE Merit Scholarship for SGC X F – 2 (Renewal)” superscribed on it –

Assistance Secretary (Scholarship),

CBSE, Shiksha Kendra, 2 Community Centre, Preet Vihar, Delhi – 110092

Also read: CBSE Board exam preparation

CBSE crash course

CBSE scholarship scheme: Award details

The amount of financial assistance provided under this scholarship program is INR 500 per month for the continual of the students of classes 11th and 12th. The amount of the scholarship is transferred through NEFT or ECS. The number of scholarships laid out every year is not fixed and the duration of this scholarship is 2 years. However, looking at the statistics of previous years the number of scholarships disbursed every year varied from 1400-1600. 

The given table depicts the number of scholars from the past years: 



           No. of scholars                


Fresh scholars in 2014



Total renewals in 2015 (for 2014)



Fresh scholars in 2015



Renewals in 2016 (for 2015)



The total number of fresh scholars in 2016



The total number of fresh scholars in 2018



The number of fresh scholars in 2019



The number of fresh scholars in 2020


Also read: Score good marks in boards

What is the selection procedure of CBSE procedure?

The selection procedure of this scholarship program involves the fulfillment of certain conditions by the girl aspirants. To avail the scholarship scheme you need to accomplish the given set of conditions: 

  • The candidates must be currently in classes 11th and 12th of CBSE-affiliated schools. 

  • The students must have cleared the 10th CBSE boards with 60% marks or more.

  • They must be the only girl child of the family. 

  • The aspirants must provide an original affidavit in the required format duly attested by the first class SDM/ Judicial Magistrate/ Notary/ Executive Magistrate.

  • The students must make certain that the application form has been attested by the principal from where they are pursuing their class 11th. 

  • The tuition fee of the class 10th CBSE board students must be INR 1,500 or less and a magnification of classes 11th and 12th is necessary.

Also check: Career options after the 10th

Renewal procedure of the CBSE scholarship scheme

This scholarship program is valid for one year; however, in order to receive financial aid for class 12th, the students can apply for the renewal of the scholarship. 

Given are the conditions that you must meet before applying for the renewal of the scholarship. 

  1. You need to apply for the renewal in class 11th. 

  2. To be qualified for the renewal the students must get a promotion to class 12th with a score of 50% or more in class 11th. 

  3. If the students have changed their chosen stream or school then the continuation of the scholarship depends entirely on the board's approval.

  4. The continuation of the scholarship also depends on the regularity and performance of the student as well. 

Keep following EtoosIndia CBSE Articles for the latest updates.