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What are agricultural implements? All about its variety and many more
03 Jan, 2023

Agricultural implements

Agriculture is India's primary activity; around 70% of the nation's population depends on it for a living. In the olden days, agriculture was done in the most primitive stages. Being a labour-intensive job, the entire work was done with hands in the primitive stages. But with the advancement of technology, the entire scenario of agriculture has shifted to the use of tools and equipment. A variety of agricultural implements are available to carry out agricultural activities with ease. 

What are agricultural implements? 

These are the tools that are necessary to carry out agricultural production in the most feasible way. There is a long list of agricultural implements that are used today by farmers for the better implementation of agricultural activities.

Read about: Genetics and Evolution

Variety of Agricultural implements

To ease agricultural production several types of agricultural implements are available to be used by farmers. Some of them are listed below: 

Irrigation Machinery 

The purpose of irrigation machinery involves watering the crops at suitable levels. It encompasses the basic pump that is required to extract water from the ground. And central pivot irrigation systems. These systems are of vital importance as this help save water and along with this provide the appropriate amount of water to the crops even in areas of water shortage. Modern irrigation machinery includes tools like sprinkler systems, drip irrigation systems etc.

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Soil cultivation implements

Soil needs to be ploughed to make it fit for cultivation. This is what these agriculture tools are used for. It involves tools like disk harrows, spike, drag, etc. 


Gone are the days when farmers use to spend days sowing seeds and saplings over a large area of land after proper preparation of the land. There are implements available to make this work easy. The planting of the seeds is done using precision drills, broadcast seeders, seed drills, air seeders or transplanting equipment.

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Harvesting implements 

These implements are used for the purpose of harvesting cultivated crops. Such agricultural implements include trailers, diggers, pickers, etc.

Some other important agricultural implements are mentioned below: 

These implements include tools that are used for purposes like hay-making, loading, shredding, etc.

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A plough is generally made of wood and is an ancient tool used for tilling, turning and adding fertilizers to the soils. It consists of a long wooden log known as the plough shaft. The ploughshaft contains a strong iron strip known as ploughshare. The other end of the ploughshare is connected to a beam that is attached to the neck of a bull like harness. However, with the introduction of modern machinery,  wooden ploughs have been taken over by iron ploughs that requires tractors for their operation.

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This tool has been in use since ancient times for the purpose of cultivation. It comprises a log wooden rod that is dragged by the animals. This is used to lose the soil and remove weeds. It has a blade attached that is stiff and made of iron. 


A cultivator is a plough attached to a tractor, it is of primal use as it helps in reducing labour and time. This equipment is used widely in secondary tillage. It is required to blend the soil around the advanced crop and stimulate growth and remove weeds.

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Seed drill

A seed drill is used for sowing seeds with the help of tractors. This equipment works by sowing the seeds into the ground at an appropriate depth and then covering the seeds with the soil after the planting is done. The process provides the plants to receive the required sunlight, nutrients, and water from the soil. This procedure keeps the seeds from the reach of birds and other animals.

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Traditional tools

It is a funnel-shaped tool used for the sowing of seeds. The funnel of this tool is filled with the seeds that are passed into the soil with the help of 2 or 3 pipes with sharp ends. Some of the common traditional tools are a Sickle, spade, and axe. The usage of this tool requires time and labour.

Read about: Class 12 biology NCERT solutions


Mention some of the important agricultural implements? 

Given are some of the important agricultural implements: 

  • Planting machines

  • Harvesting implements

  • Irrigation Machinery

  • Soil cultivation implements

Explain agriculture technology?

The technology that is used to produce machinery to ease up farming is known as agriculture technology. The main job of these machines is to ease traditional farming methods by substituting them for modern machinery. 

What is irrigation farming? 

The process of watering the crops in appropriate portions at regular intervals is known as irrigation farming. 

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Chapter-wise Class 12 Biology NCERT solutions for students
29 Dec, 2022

Class 12 Biology NCERTs solutions

If you are a class 12th board student who is also preparing for the NEET exam then you must be aware that biology is the subject that has the highest weightage. To bring out the best in both these exams it is cardinal to be well familiar with Class 12 biology NCERT solutions. To be a winner in both these exams you must have a list of all the chapters included in the syllabus so that you don’t leave any.

Importance of acquainting Class 12 biology NCERT solutions

You might feel that NCERTs are of the least importance but the case is contrary to this. NCERTs provide just the right amount of information needed to excel in the basics. When talking of the board's exams NCERTs are just enough while in the case of the NEET exam these books play a crucial role in building a stronghold of the basics that is a major prerequisite to be able to cover the advanced concepts with ease.

Chapter-wise Class 12 Biology NCERT solutions

Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms

This chapter of  Class 12 Biology NCERT solutions involves types, modes, and the process of reproduction in different organisms. The sub topics covered in this chapter are asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction, pre-fertilization events, fertilization, and post-fertilization events. The textbook uses diagrams to help the students comprehend thoroughly.

Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

This chapter will help you learn about  Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants and explains the morphology, structure, and process of sexual reproduction in angiosperms. Subtopics included in this chapter are pre-fertilization: Structure and Events, Double fertilization, Post fertilization: Structure and Events, and Apomixis, and Polyembryony.

Chapter 3: Human Reproduction

This chapter as the name suggests emphasizes on male and female reproduction. The provided diagrams, illustrations, flow charts, and laymen language will make the grasping easy for the students.

sub-topics covered in this chapter are mentioned below: 

  • Reproductive structures,

  • Male reproductive systems,

  • Female reproductive systems,

  • The role of sex hormones,

  • Gametogenesis,

  • Spermatogenesis and other introductory topics of human reproduction.

Chapter 4: Reproductive Health

This chapter deals with topics related to the ones discussed in the previous chapter, i.e, reproductive health. This chapter deals with the health of the mother and child during the pre-pregnancy period. The other topics covered in this chapter are Infant mortality, maternal mortality and amniocentesis. The subtopics included in this chapter are Reproductive Health – Problems and Strategies, Population Explosion and Birth Control, Medical Termination of Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Infertility.

Chapter 5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

This chapter covers  Genetics and Evolution. The similarities between parents and offspring have been discussed in this chapter. The other subtopics included in this chapter are Mendel’s law of inheritance, the inheritance of one gene, the inheritance of two genes, sex determination, mutations, and genetic disorders. With the help of Diagrams, illustrations, flowcharts, and easy language grasping will be easy for the students.

 Chapter 6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Here in this molecular basis of inheritance chapter of Class 12 Biology NCERT solutions, you will understand the structures of DNA, RNA, the process of replication, etc.

This chapter covers the given sub-topics:

  • The DNA: Structure of polynucleotide chain, Packaging of DNA helix.

  • The search for genetic material: The genetic material is DNA, Properties of genetic material.

  • RNA world.

  • Replication: The experimental proof, the machinery, and enzymes.

  • Transcription: The transcription unit, Transcription unit and the gene, Types of RNA, and the process of transcription.

  • Genetic code: Mutations and genetic code, t RNA. Translation. Regulation of gene expression.

  • The Lac Operon.

  • Human genome project: Salient

 Chapter 7: Evolution

This chapter focuses on the history of life forms on earth. Other topics included are the origin of life and the evolution of life forms or biodiversity on planet earth. This chapter uses Diagrams, illustrations, flowcharts, and easy language to make it easy for the students to learn.

Chapter 8: Health and Diseases

This chapter deals with diseases like Health, maintenance of optimum health, diseases, types, treatment and prevention, and immunity and its types, and how it deals with other diseases such as  AIDS, cancer, and adolescent issues. The sub topics covered in this chapter are Common Diseases in Humans, Immunity, AIDS, Cancer, Drugs, and Alcohol Abuse.

Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

This chapter covers the biological principles applied to animal husbandry and plant breeding that plays a crucial part in the production of food. Techniques like embryo transfer and tissue culture are discussed here that are necessary for the promotion of food production.

Chapter 10: Microbes in Human Welfare

Microbes are also known as micro-organisms or microscopic organisms as these can only be seen under the microscope with the naked eye. Microbes are present all around us in the air, water, soil, and so on. Microbes played a key role in the evolution of Earth. Microbes can be both infectious and harlmless. The infectious ones can even result in death. Some of the harmful diseases caused by microbes are Influenza, tuberculosis, polio, cholera, and HIV. Some of the common microbes are Bacteria, protozoa viroid, some algae, Fungi, and Viruses.

Biology NCERT master course

Chapter 11: Biotechnology Principles and Processes

Biotechnology is defined as ” the integration of natural science and organisms, cells, parts thereof, and molecular analogs for products and services” by the European federation. This chapter focuses on the extensive study of principles and processes Inculpated in biotechnology. The two focus areas of this chapter are Genetic engineering, Manufacturing of Antibiotics, Drugs, and other Vaccines.

Chapter 12: Biotechnology and its Application

This chapter of Class 12 Biology NCERT solutions explains how humans have put biotechnology into use to better the quality of life and make improvisations in the area of food production and health. With the use of microbes, plants, animals, and their metabolic machinery biotechnology has provided humans with numerous benefits.

Chapter 13: Organisms and Populations

This chapter deals with ecology at the organismic and population levels. It involves topics like organisms and their environment, niche, major abiotic factors affecting the organisms and their environments such as temperature, water, light, soil, and responses to abiotic factors like regulation , migration, conformation, and suspension.

Chapter 14: Ecosystem

This chapter deals with the structure of the ecosystem, the transfer of energy and output, at first. It will also focus on topics like cycles, chains, and webs. Besides it will also lay emphasis on Structure and Function, Productivity, Decomposition, Energy Flow, Ecological Pyramids, Ecological Succession, Nutrient Cycling, and Ecosystem Services.

Chapter 15: Biodiversity and its Conservation

This chapter covers topics such as the importance and significance of biodiversity, its types, patterns, evolution, degradation, and conservation. Some other topics covered in this chapter are Genetic diversity, species diversity, latitudinal gradients, species-area relationship, causes of biodiversity losses, in-situ conservation, and ex-situ conservation.

Chapter 16: Environmental Issues

This chapter deals with environmental issues like pollution, global warming, deforestation, etc., and the steps are undertaken to resolve these issues.

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Genetics and Evolution: A detailed and informative guide for you
24 Dec, 2022

Genetics and evolution

Before reading about genetics and evolution let's first learn about both concepts individually. Genetics is concerned with the branch of science that deals with the study of genes, genetic variations, and heredity in organisms. Genes are a type of genetic guidance that is composed of DNA. This guidance is used for the formation of molecules and also synchronizes the chemical reactions' life. These proceed from parent to offspring.

What are genetics?

You must have studied the nucleus present in the nucleus of the cell. During the fertilization and gamete formation process the DNA of male and female gametes combine to form a new DNA. In order to transfer the biological information that is necessary for the growth of the organism the same DNA gets transferred to the cell of the offspring. This substance is referred to as a gene commonly and biologically. Gene is a result of DNA molecules arranged in the form of a helical structure. The study of the genes described above is termed genetics.

Must Read: Concept of Cell Cycle Phases


Evolution is the hereditary change in the population of organisms over varied generations. The traits that the offspring inherits during the process of reproduction are the articulation of genes that were copied and transmitted during the same. The heritable traits are necessary for survival and reproduction become more common while the harmful traits are uncommon.

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What is evolution?

Life started 3.6 billion years ago with unicellular organisms or prokaryotic bacteria. In the later stages, life became more structured and developed into more structured cellular organisms called eukaryotic organisms. The eukaryotic organisms were transformed into more bigger and complex organisms in the later stages. But with the passage of time diversity has modified, it was nothing in comparison to what we see on earth today. Plants and animals have altered considerably over their ancient predators with the passage of time. This is known as evolution.

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Evolutionary Genetics

The study of how genetics leads to evolutionary changes is known as Evolutionary genetics. It entails the study of the evolution of the structure of the genome. It is the aggregate of population genetics and evolution. The process by which the size and structure of the genome alerts over time is known as genome evolution. The prokaryote genome advances with the help of mutation, transduction, and horizontal gene transfer.

Genetics and evolution: What is Evolutionary Genetics?

Evolutionary genetics is the process of how genetic variation contributes to evolutionary changes. It incorporates the evolution of the genome structure, the genetic basis of adaptation and specification, and genetic changes in reaction to population selection. It is the aggregate of the genetics and evolution of the population.

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Evolution of Structure of Genome

The process by which a genome modifies its structure and size over a period of time is known as genome evolution. The evolution of the prokaryotic genome occurs through a number of methods-mutation, horizontal gene transfer, and transduction. The mutation can be taken as any permanent change in the body's nucleotide sequence.

While Horizontal gene transfer is a process of moving genetic material from donor to recipient that is different from vertical transfer.

Mechanism of Genome Evolution

1. Duplication of Genes

It is the process of duplication of a specific DNA region. It happens due to recombination, aneuploidy, transposition, polyploidy, and error in DNA replication.

2. Transposable Components

These are the components of a DNA region that can be placed anywhere in the genome. For example- Ty elements in Drosophila. The commonly found element in humans is Sequence Alu.

3. Mutations

Unforced mutations are in charge of changes in the genome. The nucleotide sequence modifies that then results in a frameshift mutation that transforms the genome and is the most common prokaryote.

4. Exon's Shuffling

In this process, two exons from varied genes come together. This process is formed due to the creation of new genes. Due to a result of this, a new gene is inserted into the genome.

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Mechanisms of Genome Evolution: The different types

Gene duplication

It occurs when a particular DNA region is duplicated. It can happen due to recombination, transposal, aneuploidy, polyploidy, and replication of the slippage. Gene replication via recombination takes place when there is an irregular crossing at the time of meiosis.

Transposable Elements

It is a region of the DNA that can be planted anywhere in the genome either by the "cutting and paste mechanism" or by the "copy and paste mechanism."

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The unconstrained mutations often cause modifications in the genome. Mutations prompt modifications in the nucleotide sequence that persuades the mutation of the frameshift, thereby transforming the genome. It is commonly seen in prokaryotes and is also the method of adaptation of the genome.

Exon shuffling

This process involves the assembling of two exons of two different genes or replicating the same exon. This is the process through which new genes are created. It adds a new gene to the genome and plays an important role in the evolution of the genome.


How are genetics and evolution related?

Genetic differences that modify gene activity or protein function can provide several traits in an organism if a trait benefits and helps an individual survive and reproduce, the genetic variation is more likely to be passed to the next generation.

How is DNA used to explain evolution?

DNA shows that all species have one common ancestor, providing evidence for evolution.

What are the 6 stages of evolution?

The 6 stages of evolution have been listed below:

1. Dryopithecus

2. Ramapithecus

3. Australopithecus

4. Homo Erectus

5. Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis

6. Homo Sapiens Sapiens

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Concept Of Cell cycle phases
22 Dec, 2022

Concept of cell cycle phases

Before dealing with the concept of cell cycle phases it is crucial to know what cell and cell cycle is in the first place. A cell can be defined as the basic and functional unit of a living organism it can live on its and when similar cells are arranged together they form tissue and organs. The structure of the cell encompasses several organelles that have been listed below: 

  • Cytoplasm
  • Cytoskeleton
  • Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Lysosomes and peroxisomes
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Plasma membrane
  • Ribosomes

What is a cell cycle? 

The life cycle of a cell and the stages that it undergoes for the duplication of the cells along with the DNA is referred to as the cell cycle. This concept was discovered by Prevost and Dumas (1824) while researching the cleavage of the zygote of a Frog. A cell has to go through the stages of the cell cycle to divide and produce new cells. A single parent cell has the ability to create new cells and multiply its population and hence the term cell cycle. 

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What are the cell cycle phases? 

The subsequent division of the cells known as the cell cycle involves the photostatting of the genome and synthesis of the cell along with the division of the cytoplasm. When talking about the human cell cycle, it displays the typical eukaryotic cell cycle and takes 24 hours for the cessation of a single cycle of growth and division. Such is the case with the human cell cycle whereas in the case of other organisms the duration of the cell cycle varies. 
The cell cycle of a typical eukaryotic is divided into two cell cycle phases

Cell cycle phase: interphase or resting phase

Interphase or also known as the resting phase is the duration in which the cell prepares for division by undertaking both cell growth and DNA multiplication. This process alone takes 95% of the time of the entire cycle. The interphase stage of the cell cycle is divided into the given three phases: 

G1 phase (Gap 1):  

The G-1 phase involves the duration of the cell wherein mitosis and initiation of multiplication of the genetic material of the cell takes place.

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S phase (Synthesis):  

This phase involves the process of DNA replication. If the quality of the DNA of a cell is shown as 2N then it will be considered 4N after the replication. Although, there won't be any change in the number of chromosomes. 
For example: if the quantity of the number of chromosomes is 2N then it will remain so even at the end of the S phase. However, the centriole is divided into two centriole pairs into the cells that contain the centriole. 

G2 phase (Gap 2):

In this phase, the cells prepare themselves to enter the mitotic phase. This phase involves the building of RNA, proteins, and other macromolecules required for the replication of cell organelles, spindle formation, and cell growth. The bodies of adult animals contain cardiac cells that are not subject to replication and the division takes place only when there is a damaged cell or lost cell due to death. These cells do not multiply further and acquire an inactive G0 phase which is also referred to as the quiescent phase after the G1 phase is over. Such cells are metabolically active and do not further divide unless the stated two situations take place.

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M Phase: 

When the cell goes through an entire restructuring to procreate a progeny that has the equivalent number of chromosomes as the parent cells is known as the mitotic phase or the phase of the equational division. The other organelles also exhibit equal division by the process of cytokinesis which is led up by mitotic nuclear division. 

The mitotic phase is divided into given four stages: 

  • Prophase
  • Metaphase
  • Anaphase
  • Telophase
  • Mitosis

The process in which eukaryotic cell parts the nuclear DNA and Chromosomes and separates them into two varied but similar sets of nuclei are termed mitosis. As a result of a mitotic spindle, the chromosomes are pulled apart. It is an esoteric consisting of microtubules. 


This phase involves the division of cytoplasm cells. This phase begins the moment the mitosis stage ends. Due to the presence of high internal pressure and rigid cell wall, plant cells are much firm than animal cells. Hence, this phase takes place differently in animals and in plants.

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 What are the 5 major cell cycle phases? 

The 5 major cell cycle phases are: 

  • Prometaphase
  • metaphase
  • Anaphase
  • Telophase
  • Prophase

Who discovered the cell cycle?

The cell cycle was discovered by Walther Flemming in the 19th century.

Why is the division of cells important? 

The division of cells is important due to the below-mentioned reasons: It supports survival and promotes growth in organisms 
Helps in balancing the number of chromosomes Creates new cells to replace the damaged or dead ones.

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